Saturday, February 8, 2020

The Resilience of Affirmative Action and Its Still Relevant Today Research Paper

The Resilience of Affirmative Action and Its Still Relevant Today - Research Paper Example Various executive officials curtailed the enforcement of racial equality. Various government agencies, universities and corporations curtailed racial diversity. During this period, affirmative action grew stronger and more resilient. Affirmative action was shaped by a combination of normative and coercive factors within academic institutions. Universities emphasized the need for racial diversity and equality within their institutions. Civil rights activists and diversity professionals have contributed heavily to the creation and implementation of frameworks that courts later implemented. The growth of affirmative action was countered by the rise in racial conservatism. The achievement of civil rights movements led to the institutionalization of equality in large organizations. Most universities began to implement affirmative action policies voluntarily in order to create racial equality and counter social segregation. Post-secondary education treats white, black and Hispanic students differently, leading to racial inequality within institutions and the wastage of talent (Lipson, 2014). Scholars have developed theories to explain policy development over the years. Coercive isomorphism emphasizes the influence of external interests on the operations of some institutions. The approach defines bureaucratic institutions as easily influenced by organized interest groups. Another approach emphasizes the influence of law and envisions institutions as complying with legal reforms and judicial decisions. The structure of political institutions and historical contingent political processes has a crucial role in shaping policy development. Another approach states that policy development can be attributed to both voluntary and coerced approaches. The neoinstitutional theory emphasizes the need to evolve organizational policies and practices in order to apply

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Btec Sport - Health Saftey and Injury Essay Example for Free

Btec Sport Health Saftey and Injury Essay Objective:- * To recognise and understand different types of injuries Types of injuries:- * Muscle strains tears, pulls and ruptures These are caused by vigorous stretching of a muscle or tendon. In is of regular occurrence in the hamstring and calf muscles when there is failure to warm up correctly before sport. The Achilles tendon of the calf can tear completely this causes sever pain. Tear is where the muscle has been torn, Pull is where the muscle has been stretched and a Rupture is where the muscle completely breaks. We will know when we have pulled torn or strained because there will severe pain and there will be difficulty when trying to use the muscle. There may also be swelling and later on bruising. * Fractured Bones (broken) A fracture is wear the bone cracks or completely snaps. Breaking bones is painful due to the amount of blood vessels and nerves in the bones. Fractures can be categorized in two ways. A Simple Fracture This is just where the bone cracks. A Compound Fracture This is where the bone sticks out of the skin. There is often tenderness around the bone making it hard to use and it will most certainly swell causing it to look deformed. * Joint dislocation Dislocation is where the bone is pulled out of its original joint. It is caused by stressing the bone, commonly by violent twisting. It usually happens at all major joints such as Shoulder, finger, thumb, elbow and ankles. The bone will be surrounded by swelling and covered in bruises and will be tender to touch. * Sprained Ligaments (over stretched ligaments) A sprain happens when a ligament or joint get overstretched and torn. Sprains occur when twisting your foot while running or other similar accidents. The sprain should be treated as a fracture if the ligament is torn because it is a lot more severe. The area of damage while be very sore and will hurt to move it or use it * Tendonitis Tendonitis is caused by overuse of the tendons, frequently in the lower arm in the lower arm; they then become inflamed and sore/painful. This is common with sports such as tennis and golf where the tendon in the elbow is under constant use. The elbow will be very sore and it becomes almost impossible to use without difficulty. Swelling will be visible surrounding the injured tendon. * Concussion Concussion is the result of injuring your brain from taking a lot of impact to the head such as being head butted or banging your head on a hard surface, these cause the brain to rattle around the skull. Concussion is often related with unconsciousness which often follows a serious head injury. In most cases the patient will become dizzy or drowsy and become confused. In major cases there may even be memory loss. * Graze, Cuts, Burns and Bruises These are caused by falling or scraping in a sporting event. They are usually painful but not very threatening and classed as minor. However some cuts can be very deep and would require urgent attention. Bruises will be painful but will not cause any permanent or long term damage. We will be able to recognise bruises by seeing discolouration of the skin and tenderness in that area. * Spinal Injury This is an injury to the spinal column. The spinal column contains nerves and ligaments and plays a major role in our body so when damaged by impact or strain it can be potentially dangerous to move without causing further permanent damage such as paralysis. This occurs after incidents such as car crashes and falls. You will be able to tell if u have damaged your spinal cord because it will be difficult to move and will cause a lot of pain. Objective:- * To recognise illnesses/conditions that can affect sports performance * To discover the causes of injury Types of Illnesses:- * Viral Infections/Diseases Chest Infections, Colds, Flu, Sickness etc. People suffering from viral infections will often have a high temperature, be suffering from pains in the muscles making them feel weak. If someone has a viral infection such as a cold they will probably suffer with a blocked nose, fever, sore throat and frequent coughing. Viral infections cannot be cured using antibiotics, however there are products available to help relive the symptoms. * Asthma This makes a persons airways constrict making breathing difficult. Constriction is normally triggered by certain events such as allergies and temperature change. People having and asthma attack will suffer with symptoms such as a tight chest, also they may start wheezing and be short of breath. This can be relived temporarily by using steroid sprays, one to open the airways when they feel they need it and one that should be taken daily to avoid having attacks later in the day. * Hypothermia This is where the bodys temperature drops below the normal temperature (around 36 degrees Celsius). The symptoms are usually tiredness, slurred speech and loss of coordination. In some extremities the colour and feeling can be lost in the hands and feet as the blood is being diverted away to keep the brain and heart working properly. People will generally feel better when they return to a warm environment as this will encourage the body to return to normal. Hypothermia is common with people such as mountain climber who are often exposed to cold environments for long periods of time. * Hyperthermia This is caused by exposure to high temperatures, such as being in the sun/high temperatures for long periods of time. The results of hyperthermia are that the person will be left exhausted. Headaches, tiredness and thirst are also associated. To relive these symptoms the person should drink lots of fluids, while exercising and when recovering. If the person becomes to hot they could potentially become unconscious then they would require the need of being put on a drip. * Hypoglycaemia Hypoglycaemia is caused by having low levels of glucose in the blood so enough isnt reaching the vita places e.g. the brain. It is commonly associated with people who have type 1 diabetes. Not enough food, too much exercise, consuming too much alcohol and having too much insulin in the blood all contribute to causing hypoglycaemia. The symptoms of hypoglycaemia are confusion, shaking, paleness, hunger and in some extreme cases, unconsciousness. Eating food rich in carbohydrates can reverse these effects quite quickly The Main Causes of Injury Internally Caused * Overuse Injuries * Sudden Injuries Externally Caused * Impact Injuries * Foul Play Injuries * Equipment Injuries * Accidental Injuries Internally Caused Injuries Direct result of the performer, no other person or factor is involved Overuse Injuries (Tennis/Golfers Elbow, Shin Splints etc.) These are caused by over training and over competing. Sudden Injuries These tend to be caused instantly because of over stretching, twisting and turning. They are commonly acknowledged with tiredness and fatigue and normally occur late on in a match. Also doing something too difficult can result in a sudden injury. Externally Caused Injuries Caused by someone or something other than yourself Impact Injury This is and injury from being hit or hitting something. These are often the result of things like:- * An Opponent * Equipment * Playing Surface * Playing Conditions Foul Play Injuries These are normally the result of another player breaking the rules and regulations of the game. They may be unaware of the rules or may be doing it intentionally to harm. Accidental Injuries Different activities have different levels and risk and higher elements of danger. For example Footballers are less likely to gain an injury than someone playing rugby due to it being more physical. Equipment Injuries Old or unchecked/faulty equipment can result in these injuries. Equipment must be frequently maintained to avoid these occurring. These can be as simple as blisters from overuse or in the most extreme cases, even death. Prevention of Injuries * Warm up; loosen muscles for prevention of pulling muscles. * Wear the correct equipment (shin pads), wear them correctly to ensure safeness. * Know and follow the rules of the game to be able to play fair, include using officials to keep the activity under control, this way players are less likely to get injured * Check all equipment is safe and in good condition to ensure faulty equipment cant injure you. * Dont over compete (not doing too much exorcise) * Weather conditions- make sure the conditions are safe (not slippery, stormy etc.) 1. Preparation Before playing or participating in any sport it is vital that you train to your age and you personal fitness. Also a good knowledge and understanding of the sport you will be participating in will also reduce the amount of injuries, a good respect for the rules and regulations of the game will reduce the injuries. A warm up and warm down is essential to help reduce the amount of injuries in the game. Consider having long hair, long nails, jewellery and also the types of clothing you wear could also give you an injury. 2. Participation By according to the rules could prevent an injury, by using reckless tackles and reckless play can injure you and the opposing player. Officials have got to be consistent and fair in their decisions for the game to be fair and this could prevent someone from being injured, players must accept these decisions given by the officials. 3. Equipment For the sport which you are participating in you need to be using the specialist equipment for that specific sport and has to be in good condition, such as shin pads for football, these have to be worn. All equipment has to be in top condition because if this equipment isnt safe and fails you could be seriously injured such as rock climbing etc. 4. Environment The area which the sport is being taken on has to be checked over for litter and unsafe objects. It has to be safe and appropriate. Also you have to check the weather conditions as this could lead the sport being potentially dangerous such as storms and windy weather. Risk Assessment 1. You are about to conduct a badminton coaching session in the sports all. * Make sure that none of the equipment is faulty. E.g. rackets have sufficient grip, nets secured correctly. * Make sure that there is no wet floor * Make sure there is no obstructions in the way of the courts 2. You are taking a year 7 group onto the field for football. * Make sure that everyone is wearing the correct protective equipment. (e.g. shin pads) * Make sure that there are no obstacles on the pitch or area where football will be played * Make sure the weather conditions are suitable for playing * Make sure that the pitch is suitable to play on by making sure its not icy or waterlogged Potential risk of playing- 1. Badminton * Fire * Falls * Foul play * Asthma attack * Hyperthermia * Slips * Lack of communication that could result in injury * Sensible behaviour * Know how to set up safe equipment 2. Football * Falls * Foul play * Asthma attack * Hyperthermia * Spinal Injury * Broken bones * Concussion * Weather conditions * Lack of communication that could result in injury * Sensible behaviour * Potholes * All spare equipment is out of the way * Posts are secured

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Plant World Essay -- Environment, Plant Species, Plant Communicati

Introduction Plants exhibit exceptionally intelligent behaviour when it comes to interactions with their environment. They can detect perceived threats, then convey warning signals to other plants via chemical signaling. Forewarned plants will then assemble their defenses against these potential threats, thus, increasing their chance of survival and reproduction. Communication and competition are common occurrences among the plant world. Another brilliantly, almost inconceivable capability plants possess is the ability to recognize coexisting family members within their home range. These intelligent life forms realize that if family members compete less with each other by allocation of their resources, their group will do better overall. This is a strategy utilized by many species, especially plants, to eliminate competition within their community in nature (Mancuso 2006). Competition can occur between members of the same or different species. The involved individuals are negatively affected by other individuals that have the same living requirements, such as food or space. Inter-specific competition transpires when members of different species compete for a particular resource. Intra-specific competition arises when members of the same species compete with one another for a particular resource (Encyclopedia Britannica 2010). In this experiment we concentrate on inter-specific competition. We measured the effect of competitor density on the growth of plants in order to observe the outcome of inter-specific competition. In set one (of two), our group utilized allelopathic rye grass (Secale cereal L.) as our competitor species. In set two, we made use of non-allelopathic oats (Avena fatua var. sativa) as our competitor spec... ...ass soil. This demonstrates that a pathogen may influence allelopathy between plants and that rust may enhance ryegrass allelopathy against clover (Mattner 2001). Our results supported the alternative hypothesis which states that the density and weight of rye or oats (competitor species) had a significant effect on the 1/w of the clover (indicator species) under normal conditions. This proves that non-legumes win when in an inter-specific competition with a legume species and allelopathic chemicals negatively affect indicator species during inter-specific competition (Cain 2008). Errors that could have occurred when designing this experiment include possible uneven distribution light, water, or temperature fluctuations. For future research I would suggest observing the effects of allelopathy and symbiotic bacteria among different legume and non-legume species.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Ageing problem in China

The second half of the 20 century, human beings has experienced the most rapid population ageing population process, especially in developed countries. Meanwhile, China followed the step to get in an ageing society with weak economic strength and an Imperfect system which have significant Impact In economy and society. In addition, the current old-age security, health care Institutions and traditional management system have not kept pace with the development of old age boom, so that China's government should take a series of measures to encourage people to prepare for old age.The United Nations believe that if the old people in a country over the age of 60 are more than 10 percent or over arrears old of population for more than percent of the total number, then it is already belongs to an ageing population country. This problem is generated by population age structure, while the change depends on three factors: births, deaths and migration. The most Important element determining the ageing population Is the decline of fertility rate. [l] So far, In our country there are 144 million of classified old people, making 1 1 percent population in total, and Increasing at percent average annual rate.It Is predicted that by 2020 China's elderly population will reach million, accounting for 17. Percent in total, and after 2050, the data will jump to percent, getting into severe ageing stage. The ageing levels rise from Percent to percent in Just less than arrears, while Britain, France, the united States and other western industrialized countries of will take roughly arrears. [2] As a developing country with a large population, this rate is indeed staggering. Impact Ageing population Is the product related to national economy, politics, culture and any other fields.It concerns the people's livelihood and national sustainable development strategies of major social Issue. In this paper I will discuss two mall Impacts related In economy and the whole society. With the growt h In the number of people living longer, it brings financial difficulties, especially in China, the number of old people is large and the number increases dramatically which means the government needs to increase the financial expenditure in retirement pay, pensions, health care, health insurance and elderly welfare.Moreover, there is not a perfect social security system in our country. The labor market is also affect by an ageing population. To be specific, it causes a decline in the proportion of working-age population and the ageing labor force, leading to a reduction in supply of workforce and labor productivity. In this case, China will find it hard to change the situation In cheap labors focus and get some competitive edge in the International market. The consumption structure and Industrial structure might be changed.We cannot Ignore the fact that old people are a kind of special consumer group In living goods, housing, tourism and medical care. With the number of old people going up, those consumer rodents gain their position in the market which is the reason to make the medical industry in a large extent. The elderly are the major consumer of health care group and main beneficiaries in medical insurance system. On the one hand, old people belong to the group of easily attacked by diseases because body tissues and organs are heading into a higher speed aging process, and the resistance is too weak to resist the attack of disease.The relevant research indicates that percent of critical illness shared by the people who are over arrears old is 5. 6 times more than the total in the whole country. On the other hand, there are varieties of demands in health service and the medical expenditure is become more and more expensive, so that numerous families can not afford it. The burden of family will be heavier than before. A family with old people is required long-term care services, rehabilitation care and spiritual consolation and so on.Nowadays in China, the structure of family affected by One Child Policy, one person required to support the four elderly and one child. How stressful they are. Strategies Facing the severe situation of an ageing population, it is a challenge for the Chinese overspent. In order to promote sustainable development and harmonious society, the three below strategies can be done by government to encourage people to have a happy life in their old age. To improve the old-age medical security system and continue to be improved.It can offer a effective and a whole set of services from hospital to daily health care, as well as medical insurance, pension insurance and elderly welfare for the old people. In addition, it stimulates the economic boom of relevant industry, such as home-care agencies. Paying greater attention to the elderly community service system and strengthening community- based social welfare and the basic community service function. The overwhelming majority of old people are empty nesters, which m ean they like the birds living in the empty nest and no one take care of them.Considering this situation, government should invest more on building elderly community service system, like increase the sport equipment, medical services, elderly community activities and projects. To make people more aware of elderly health care by promoting or advertising. In this way people will gradually notice and improve the ability to remain independence. It can also help the elderly to be self-reliance, self-care and self-help capabilities which will benefit for their physical and mental health.On the other words, it can cultivate a healthy aging environment to reduce aging, so that many organs and functions could be extended as much as possible. In conclusion, much needs to be done to deal with the ageing population, and it not only depends on a robust system of government but also the effort of the public. As the saying goes, Rome was not built in a day. We need to develop step by step and lear n from experiences other countries to help us to promote strategy of sustainable development.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Fracking - Legal Consequences and Emissions into the Atmosphere Free Essay Example, 2750 words

It may be argued that unlimited fracking only holds negative consequences on the economy of the United States. However, to some extent, unlimited fracking has beneficial to the economy of the United States. The supporters of the fracking process have argued that economically, it provides thousands of jobs and especially to the economically depressed regions. For example, fracking has already provided jobs for many people in Southern Tier, which is a region along the northern border of Pennsylvania. The state of Ohio has also been reported to have the potential to create many jobs from fracking in the near future (Lydersen midwestenergynews. com). The United States natural gas reserves have been increased to 75% by fracking and this is advantageous to the economy (Pierce 2-3). This will increase manufacturing activity by reducing the cost of energy. It will also boost the economy as the costs of transportation will be reduced since heavy trucks, construction equipment and trains will be converted from expensive petroleum consuming machinery to machinery using cheaper natural gas. Fracking has also boosted the economy as the costs of paying for natural gas by the consumers are minimal (Pierce 5). The chemicals used during the fracking process have been exempted from the federal disclosure laws. We will write a custom essay sample on Fracking - Legal Consequences and Emissions into the Atmosphere or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Over the years, Britain has been seen to copy almost everything from America and recently, they have been eyeing the energy revolution in America that has come with fracking.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Federal RICO Statutes Essay - 1615 Words

RICO, which stands for Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, was created in 1970 by the United States Government as a way to help courts fight organized crime. These types of organized crime are often called white collar crimes and they can range from fraud and embezzlement to bribery. Before RICO was established it was far too easy for a person higher up the ladder or ranks of a company or gang to dodge any sort of prosecution for their actions simply because they were not the person who actually did whatever deeds that were being prosecuted. Instead, said person would hold to the liability of others for acting out on their orders, making such persons the only viable criminal, because they were the ones who actively†¦show more content†¦Stat. 895.02), that the defendants in the criminal action were members of the racketeering enterprise, and that the racketeering conduct by the defendants was committed for the purpose of maintaining or advancing their posit ions in the racketeering enterprise† (Criminal Law 472). What these rubrics ensure is that it is able to be proven that a project or business was or is organized and was or is operating in attempts to make profit by illegal means. It must be proven with evidence or testimony that the defendants partook of these activities in order to keep their high level status or to gain status within the business. It may also be noted that the two incidents of racketeering need to have occurred within ten years of one another in order to uphold RICO laws. Also, many states have created their own RICO-like laws that envelop and uphold many of the statutes of RICO itself, in attempts to prevent any loophole activity from occurring. If a conviction is apprehended then the defendant(s) is often subject to pay back numerous monetary sums including but not limited to, funds that were accrued during the illegal activity, treble damages, as well as court and attorney fees. There are a number of differing opinions on the RICO statute, include some of which tha t feel as though RICO is overstepping some of its Constitutional bounds. The biggest Constitutional upheaval that could be claimed would beShow MoreRelatedThe And Corrupt Organization Act1626 Words   |  7 PagesInfluenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO) in a criminal or civil law suit a pattern of racketeering activity must be ascertained by proving at least two acts of racketeering activity have been performed within an interval of ten years. This law could not be upheld in Sedina, SPRL v Inrex Co., 473 US 479 (1985) as two predicate acts could not be maintained (Twomey, 2013). Title IX of the Act is the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Statute, the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970Read MoreLaw Enforcement, US Military, and Terrorism923 Words   |  4 PagesSection 4: Law Enforcement, U.S. Military, and Terrorism Law enforcement agencies at the federal level and the U.S. military play a significant role in preventing terrorism on a state, national, and global scale. Former Vice-President Dick Cheney comments, On the ground, the first responders and local police [are] the first line of defense and intelligence, followed by federal law enforcement, with our foreign intelligence and military forces on call (Melber). 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In terms of socioeconomic conditions, all show similarities to that found in Puerto Rico, specifically that the cases suffered from similar levels of unemployment and wealth disparity. In terms of legal framework, Puerto Rico’s territorial status and that of D.C are most similar because federal mandates dictate the economy of the territory. While the other cases differ in this aspect, they provide a contrast to how the national governmentRead MorePolitical and Economic System1250 Words   |  5 Pageson the structure of the government. The economic issues can impact the society based on how the government decides to deal with it. I also had to compare and contrast the current economic and political issue in my country of origin which is Puerto Rico to Spain’s economic and political issue. Introduction Spain also known as the kingdom of Spain is a beautiful country with a very appealing geography, history, culture, economy, missionary effort, and state capitol. 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Judicial review-Courts declare the actions of other government bodies unconstitutional. Police power-broad state power to regulate for the public health, safety, morals, and welfareRead MoreThe Supreme Court Of The United States1905 Words   |  8 PagesIn the SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO Petitioner, V. LUIS M. SANCHEZ VALLE AND JAIME GOMEZ VAZQUEZ Respondents. On Writ of Certiorari to the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico BRIEF AMICUS CURIAE OF NATASHA JOHNSON STATEMENT OF INTEREST As someone in support of statehood for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, this case holds special significance. I am a firm believer that Puerto Rico has been treated unjustly as a territory by the United States, and this

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Essay about A Dolls House and The Giver - 1745 Words

Research Paper It’s all around us, a highly structured system depicting our everyday life. It’s what we are all a part of and isn’t something one can simply escape. It is society. The norms of society influence our religious beliefs, hair, and clothing choices and even our way of thinking. Society is what determines what is right or wrong. People tend to follow the rules of society in order to fit in. Often one doesn’t realize they are even doing it, as participating in the ways and expectations of society is a daily occurrence. After reading A Doll’s House and The Giver, it was brought to my attention that society is often controlling and corrupt. Most individuals are oblivious to the fact because they don’t know any other way.†¦show more content†¦She believes that she was in the right to do such a thing as it was for the benefit of her husband. The realization of how restricted the laws are towards women leads Nora to perceive the m differently. She realizes that the laws are unjust and do not serve equal protection to women. The corrupt view of women as inferior, is a particular fact taught to succeeding generations, that became further entrenched into the cultural reality (Newman). Nora realizes that individuals, such as Krogstad, see nothing wrong with the law because it’s the norm of their society. Not until the law came to negatively affect Nora, did she realize the corruption of it all. From here on out, Nora catches on to the ways of society and comes to perceive the world in different viewpoint. All it takes is one instance of realization to lead the movement of change. One instance for the law to work against you, to have a different perspective on society. Jonas, the main character of The Giver, is perceptive from the beginning, which separates him from the others of the community. For this reason, Jonas is assigned to be the Receiver. His perception of the world around him only grows with his new assignment. As the Giver, the man who apprentices Jonas, transmits memories to Jonas he learns of all that is missing from his society; color, emotion, and most of all, choice. Jonas expresses his frustration when he says, â€Å"‘If everythings the same, then there arent anyShow MoreRelateda dolls house1153 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ A Doll’s House South University Ibsen’s a doll house centers around a time where men worked and women were the care givers of the home. In a Doll’s House there were some major points made that eventually led up to that one defining moment. The defining moment for me was when Nora decided that she no longer wants to live the lifestyle of being the â€Å"doll†. It starts with Torvalds reading the letter about her borrowing the money and Nora’s secret is finally exposedRead MoreHow Gender Roles Are Predetermined by the Environment1305 Words   |  6 Pageseach. As a result I am going to explain where the gender roles come from and further more analyse how the gender roles and attitudes are predetermined by the society and the environment. I will show this through the characters in the story â€Å"A Doll House† and â€Å"The Lady with the Dog.† Women and men have extremely different roles in society. These gender roles are based on how people have been treated in the past and the actions in history it has taken toward gender equality. Katha Pollitt expressesRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen Essay1818 Words   |  8 PagesIn the two plays â€Å"A Doll’s House† by Henrik Ibsen, and â€Å"Trifles† by Susan Glaspell both main characters Nora and Minnie are woman trapped behind the dominance roles of their husband wanting to be free to be their own person. Nora cannot know herself because she s married to Torvald, and Minnie needs to escape the institution of her own marriage by killing her husband to become free. In my research, we will discuss the topic of gender roles and woman identity based on the two plays and furtherRead MoreUnderstand the Expected Pattern of Development for Children and Young People from Birth – 19 Years.2122 Words   |  9 Pageswill |Stops crying when picked up, a nd/or hears a |Eyes will follow a dangling toy held above/in |Will look intently at Primary care giver’s face | |Month |begin looking less stiff and inflexible. Held |familiar voice. Care givers may be able to |front of them. From around the 5 or 6 weeks |when spoken to or during feeding. Fleeting or | | |sitting, head will fall forward. |differentiate between different sounding cries |stageRead Morechild development essay5345 Words   |  22 Pagesthe Nursery I observed that the play items and pictures covered a multi-cultural theme. Babies are programmed at birth to be interested in the social world around them. John Bowlby (1969) first applied the theory of attachment to the infant care-giver bond, which recognises the infant’s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival (Berk 2009).Many developmental psychologists view attachment as the special relationships between infants and caregivers, and an importantRead MoreSantrock Edpsych Ch0218723 Words   |  75 Pagesrepresent mentally an object that is not present. Expanded use of language and the emergence of pretend play are other examples of an increase in symbolic thought during this substage. Young children begin to use scribbled designs to represent people, houses, cars, clouds, and many other aspects of the world. Their drawings are fanciful and inventive. Suns are blue, skies are green, and cars float on clouds in their imaginative world. The symbolism is simple but strong, not unlike abstractions found in